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  <Article>
    <Journal>
      <PublisherName>njbms</PublisherName>
      <JournalTitle>NJBMS</JournalTitle>
      <PISSN>0976-6626</PISSN>
      <EISSN>2455-1740</EISSN>
      <Volume-Issue>Volume 3, Issue 2</Volume-Issue>
      <PartNumber/>
      <IssueTopic>Multidisciplinary</IssueTopic>
      <IssueLanguage>English</IssueLanguage>
      <Season>October - December 2012</Season>
      <SpecialIssue>N</SpecialIssue>
      <SupplementaryIssue>N</SupplementaryIssue>
      <IssueOA>Y</IssueOA>
      <PubDate>
        <Year>-0001</Year>
        <Month>11</Month>
        <Day>30</Day>
      </PubDate>
      <ArticleType>Anatomy</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>A STUDY ON OSSIFIED PTERYGOSPINOUS AND PTERYGOALAR LIGAMENTS IN INDIAN SKULLS</ArticleTitle>
      <SubTitle/>
      <ArticleLanguage>English</ArticleLanguage>
      <ArticleOA>Y</ArticleOA>
      <FirstPage>103</FirstPage>
      <LastPage>108</LastPage>
      <AuthorList>
        <Author>
          <FirstName>DEVI JANSIRANI</FirstName>
          <LastName>D</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>N</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
          <FirstName>MUGUNTHAN</FirstName>
          <LastName>N</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>Y</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
          <FirstName>ANBALAGAN</FirstName>
          <LastName>J</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>Y</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
          <FirstName>SUDHA</FirstName>
          <LastName>RAO</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>Y</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
          <FirstName>SHIVADEEP</FirstName>
          <LastName>S</LastName>
          <AuthorLanguage>English</AuthorLanguage>
          <Affiliation/>
          <CorrespondingAuthor>Y</CorrespondingAuthor>
          <ORCID/>
        </Author>
      </AuthorList>
      <DOI/>
      <Abstract>Pterygospinous and pterygoalar ligaments are the intrinsic ligaments present in the sphenoid bone, which may get ossified occasionally. The aim of this study is to observe the incidence and detailed anatomy of ossified pterygospinous and pterygoalar ligaments in Indian skulls. A total of 204 skulls from various Medical and Dental Colleges of Puducherry and Chennai were studied. Pterygospinous ligament ossified completely in 2 skulls (0.98%) and incompletely in 22 skulls (10.78%). Pterygoalar ligament ossified completely in 5 skulls (2.45%) and incompletely in 8 skulls (3.92%). The length of complete pterygospinous bar was 9-11 mm and its width measured 2-3 mm. The length of complete pterygoalar bar measured 3-9 mm and its width was 2-5 mm. The mean vertical and horizontal diameter of the pterygospinous foramen was 7.5 x 7.0 mm respectively and that of pterygoalar foramen was 3.2 x 2.7 mm respectively. Pterygospinous bar was observed most commonly medial to foramen ovale and pterygoalar bar was most commonly found to traverse across the foramen ovale. Thereby, the mandibular nerve emerging out through foramen ovale and its branches can be compressed by these bars and lead to trigeminal neuralgia. These bars hinder the surgical approaches to the base of the skull. Their presence reduces the success rate in trigeminal ganglion block by trans-ovale approach. Therefore, knowledge about these bony bridges is essential for physicians, anesthetists, radiologists, dentists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons.</Abstract>
      <AbstractLanguage>English</AbstractLanguage>
      <Keywords>: Pterygospinous bar, pterygoalar bar, ossified ligaments of sphenoid, mandibular nerve entrapment.</Keywords>
      <URLs>
        <Abstract>https://njbms.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=1623&amp;title=A STUDY ON OSSIFIED PTERYGOSPINOUS AND PTERYGOALAR LIGAMENTS IN INDIAN SKULLS</Abstract>
      </URLs>
      <References>
        <ReferencesarticleTitle>References</ReferencesarticleTitle>
        <ReferencesfirstPage>16</ReferencesfirstPage>
        <ReferenceslastPage>19</ReferenceslastPage>
        <References/>
      </References>
    </Journal>
  </Article>
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