<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.2d1 20170631//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd">
      <Volume-Issue>volume 10 issue 4</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>April - June 2020</Season>
      <ArticleTitle>Is Oligonephronia an origin of renal disease?</ArticleTitle>
      <Abstract>We have been all taught over the years that each kidney has approximately one million nephrons. It has been found now that there is a lot of variation in nephron number between individuals. Epidemiological research now supports the hypothesis proposed two decades ago by Brenner et al, that a low nephron count at birth may result in hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in later life. It has been found that low birth weight is a strong surrogate marker associated with low nephron numbers. Other clinical associations of low nephron numbers have been listed as female gender, short stature, smaller kidneys and most importantly, prematurity. Caucasians and Australian Aborigines have found to have low nephron number and is associated with increased incidence of high blood pressure in them. On histological examination, glomerular volume is found to be inversely proportional to the nephron number indicating compensatory hypertrophy with the triggering factor being low nephron number. This can lead to progressive decline in renal function precipitated by subsequent insults in later life. It has been now found that in infants born with low nephron number, prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease are high. If the causes that lead to this low nephron number at birth could be identified and treated during the antenatal period, by a good antenatal care, it may help in reducing the global burden of hypertension and renal disease.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Low Nephron Number,Low Birth Weight,Chronic kidney disease,Oligonephronia</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://njbms.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=13038&amp;title=Is Oligonephronia an origin of renal disease?</Abstract>
	Painter RC, Roseboom TJ, van Montfrans GA, Bossuyt PM, Krediet RT, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Bleker OP. Microalbuminuria in adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch f amine. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005 ; 16:189–194.&#13;
	Hoy WE, Hughson MD, Singh GR,Douglas- Denton R,Bertram JF.Reduced nephron number and glomerulomagaly in Australian Aborigines: a group at high risk for renal disease and hypertension. Kidney Int 2006; 70:104-110.&#13;
	Hoy WE, Nicol JL. The Barker hypothesis con?rmed: association of low birth weight with all-cause natural deaths in young adult life in a remote Australian aboriginal community. J Dev Orig Health Dis 2019; 10:55–62.&#13;
	Hinchli?e SA, Sargent PH, Howard CV, Chan YF, van Velzen D. Human intrauterine renal growth expressed in absolute number of glomeruli assessed by the disector method and Cavalieri principle. Lab Invest 1991; 64:777–784.&#13;
	Sutherland MR, Gubhaju L, Moore L, Kent AL, Dahlstrom JE, Horne RS, Hoy WE, Bertram JF, Black MJ. Accelerated maturation and abnormal morphology in the preterm neonatal kidney.J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22:1365–1374.&#13;
	Sutherland MR, Ryan D, Black MJ,et al.Long term renal consequences of preterm birth. Clin perinatol 2014; 41(3):561-573.&#13;
	Manalich R, Reyes L, Herrera M, Melendi C, Fundora I. Relation-ship between weight at birth and the number and size of renal glomeruli in humans: a histomorphometric study. Kidney Int 2000; 58:770–773.&#13;
	Puelles VG, Bertram JF. 2015. Counting glomeruli and podocytes: rationale and methodologies. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2915; 24:224–230.&#13;
	Sasaki T, Tsuboi N, Kanzaki G, Haruhara K, Okabayashi Y, Koike K, Kobayashi A, Yamamoto I, Ogura M, Hoy WE, et al. Biopsy-based estimation of total nephron number in Japanese living kidney donors. Clin Exp Nephrol 2019; 23:629–63.&#13;
	Denic A, Lieske JC, Chakkera HA, Poggio ED, Alexander MP, Singh P, Kremers WK, Lerman LO, Rule AD. The substantial loss of nephrons in healthy human kidneys with aging. JAm Soc Nephrol 2017a; 28: 313–320.&#13;
	Baldelomar EJ, Charlton JR, Beeman SC, Bennett KM. Measuring rat kidney glomerular number and size in vivo with MRI. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2018; 314(3):F399-F406&#13;
	Lenihan CR, Busque S, Derby G, Blouch K, Myers BD, Tan JC. Longitudinal study of living kidney donor glomerular dynamics after nephrectomy. J Clin Invest 2015b; 125:1311–1318.&#13;
	Keller G, Zimmer G, Mall G, Ritz E, Amann K. 2003. Nephron number in patients with primary hypertension. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:101–108.&#13;
	Zhang Z, Quinlan J, Hoy W, Hughson MD, Lemire M, Hudson T,Hueber PA, Benjamin A, Roy A, Pascuet E, et al.A common RET variant is associated with reduced new born kidney size and function. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 19:2027–2034.&#13;
	Brenner BM, Garcia DL, Anderson S. Glomeruli and blood pressure. Less of one, more the other? Am J Hypertens 1988; 1:335–347.&#13;
	Wang X, Johnson AC, Sasser JM, Williams JM, Solberg Woods LC, Garrett MR. Spontaneous one-kidney rats are more susceptible to develop hypertension by DOCA-NaCl and subsequent kidney injury compared with uninephrectomized rats. Am J P h y s i o l R e n a l P h y s i o l 2 0 1 6 ; 310:F1054–F1064.&#13;
	Kanzaki G, Tsuboi N, Haruhara K, Koike K, Ogura M, Shimizu A,Yokoo T. 2015. Factors associated with a vicious cycle involving a low nephron number, hypertension and chronic kidney disease.Hypertens Res 2015; 38:633–641.&#13;
	Zandi-Nejad K, Luyckx VA, Brenner BM.Adult hypertension and kidney disease: the role of fetal programming. Hypertension 2006; 47:502-508.&#13;
	Conti G, De Vivo D, Fede C, Arasi S, Alibrandi A, Chimenz R,Santoro D. Low birth weight is a conditioning factor for podocyte alteration and steroid dependence in children with nephrotic syndrome. J Nephrol 2018; 31:411–415.&#13;
	Jetton JG, Boohaker LJ, Sethi SK, Wazir S, Rohatgi S, Soranno DE, Chishti AS, Woroniecki R, Mammen C, Swanson JR, et al. Incidence and outcomes of neonatal acute kidney injury (AWAKEN): a multicentre, multinational, observational cohort study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2017; 1:184–194.&#13;
	Luyckx VA, Moritz KM, Bertram JF. Developmental programming of blood pressure and renal function through the life course. In: Yu ASL, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Taal MW, Skorecki K,Luyckx VA, editors. Brenner and Rectorand;#39; s The Kidney.2020 Philadelphia: Elsevier 667- 709.&#13;
	Luyckx VA, Brenner  BM.  Clinical c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l programming of low nephron number. Anat Rec. 2019.Americal Association of Anatomy doi:10.1002/ar.24270.&#13;
	Luyckx VA, Perico N, Somaschini M, Manfellotto D, Valensise H, Cetin I, et al. A developmental approach to the prevention of hypertension and kidney disease: a report from the Low Birth Weight and Nephron Number Working Group. Lancet. 2017; 390:424–428. WHO.</References>